Scientists believe roaches have been in existence for more than 200 million years. They live on all continents except Antarctica, with about 70 of the known 4,000 species present in the United States.

What do roaches look like?

The body of a cockroach is oval in shape and consists of a head, thorax, and abdomen with six legs, antennae, compound eyes, and a hard exoskeleton. Not counting antennae, roaches found in the United States range in size from 1/2” to 2”. The mouths of roaches point downward and they draw air in through holes in their bodies called spiracles while they use their antennae to smell and feel. Roaches may have wings; however, with the exception of the brown-banded cockroach, their ability to fly is limited.

Roaches are varying shades of brown in color, with some species-unique markings. The aptly-named brown-banded cockroach has a light-colored band running across its wings, the German cockroach has two dark brown markings on its thorax, and the American cockroach has a yellow band behind its head. The Oriental cockroach is often called the “black beetle” because of its dark coloring.

The lifespan of a roach varies based on species – from a couple of months to a couple of years – but each progresses from egg to nymph to adult. During the nymph stage, roaches shed their outer shell multiple times (a process known as molting) before becoming adults. Prolific breeders, the German cockroach is the most prevalent species of roach in the world. A single German cockroach and her offspring can produce 300,000 roaches in a year.

What are the unique characteristics of roaches?

Roaches are omnivores, eating anything from plants to leather to human food to paper to dead skin cells. When food is scarce they will become cannibalistic, eating other roaches. Cockroaches are also attracted to beer, but more for the sugar than alcohol content!

Though not indestructible, roaches have developed keen survival skills. Roaches can run at a speed of three miles per hour. They can withstand 32 degrees (Fahrenheit) cold and can go a month without food and a week without water. A roach can survive a half-hour submerged underwater and hold its breath for 40 minutes. Most surprisingly, because it breathes through spiracles on its body, a cockroach can live for a week without its head, dying only because it can’t drink water through its mouth.

What are the habits of roaches?

Most roaches are nocturnal, preferring to come out in the dark. They migrate to warm locations and typically hide in cracks and crevices, though American cockroaches are bold and will often congregate in the open.

Where are roaches are commonly found?

  • Roaches will take up residence anywhere they can find food, water, shelter, and warmth.
  • Brown-banded cockroaches are usually found in the Southern, Midwest, and Northeastern regions of the United States. They prefer warm, dry locations and hide in closets, furniture, and cabinets.
  • German cockroaches like warm, moist places like bathrooms and kitchens, as well as anywhere food is prepared. They are often found in restaurants, grocery stores, hotels, and apartments.
  • American cockroaches typically stay outdoors, though they will come inside to find food or escape the cold. They prefer dark, moist areas like basements, water pipes, and boiler rooms.
  • Oriental cockroaches are prevalent in the Southern, Midwest, and Northwestern regions of the United States. They also like moist, damp spots in crawl spaces, under porches, and around sewer drains and pipes.
  • Wood cockroaches prefer to remain outside, making their homes under piles of wood, debris, and leaves.

What are the risks of a roach infestation?

Roaches travel through dirty areas, carrying germs from one place to another and contaminating food, surfaces, and other items they come in contact with. They spread more than 30 different types of bacteria, including salmonella, which can cause physical distress in humans. Their presence can trigger asthma attacks and allergic reactions, especially in children. Cockroaches may also feed on human skin, hair, and nails, causing irritation, swelling, and even open wounds.

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